About Christmas

6/10 (1 vot)
Domeniu: Engleză
Conține 1 fișier: doc
Pagini : 4 în total
Cuvinte : 1238
Mărime: 92.16KB (arhivat)
Publicat de: Mia Cornea
Puncte necesare: 7

Extras din referat

Christmas traditions


From old English Cristes maesse (Christ's Mass), older still, Yule, from the Germanic root geol. In some languages:

English: Christmas, Yule, Noel

German: Weihnachten

Finnish: Joulu

Swedish: Jul

Italian: Il Natale

Spanish: La Natividad

French: Noel

The traditional Christmas is not a single day but a prolonged period, normally from 24th December to 6th January. This included the New Year, thus increasing the festival value of Christmas.


From old Persian language, a priest of Zarathustra (Zoroaster). The Bible gives us the direction, East and the legend states that the wise men were from Persia (Iran) - Balthasar, Melchior, Caspar - thus being priests of Zarathustra religion, the mages. Obviously the pilgrimage had some religious significance for these men, otherwise they would not have taken the trouble and risk of travelling so far. But what was it? An astrological phenomenon, the Star? This is just about all we know about it.

Christmas card

The practice of sending Christmas greeting cards to friends was initiated by Sir Henry Cole in England. The year was 1843 and the first card was designed by J.C.Horsley. It was commercial - 1000 copies were sold in London. An English artist, William Egley, produced a popular card in 1849. From the beginning the themes have been as varied as the Christmas customs worldwide.


The astrological/astronomical phenomenon which triggered the travel of the Magi to give presents to child Jesus. Variously described as a supernova or a conjunction of planets it supposedly happened around the year 7 BC - the most probable true birth year of Christ. Star is often put to the top of the Christmas tree.

Christmas Day

The traditional date for the appearance of Santa Claus, obviously from the birthdate of Jesus (the word Christmas is from old English, meaning Christ's mass). This date is near the shortest day of the year, from old times an important agricultural and solar feasting period in Europe. The actual birthday of Jesus is not known and thus the early Church Fathers in the 4th century fixed the day as was most convenient. The best fit seemed to be around the old Roman Saturnalia festival (17 - 21 December), a traditional pagan festivity with tumultuous and unruly celebrations. Moreover, in 273 Emperor Aurelianus had invented a new pagan religion, the cult of Sol Invictus (invincible sun, the same as the Iranian god Mithra), the birthday of this god being 25th December (natalis sol invicti). The Christian priests obviously saw this choice as doubly meritorious: using the old customary and popular feasting date but changing the rough pagan ways into a more civilized commemoration.

The first mention of the birthday of Jesus is from the year 354. Gradually all Christian churches, except Armenians (celebrating 6th January which date is for others the baptismal day of Jesus and the day of the three Magi), accepted the day. In American/English tradition the Christmas Day itself is the day for Santa, in German/Scandinavian tradition the Christmas Eve is reserved for presents.

Christmas symbolics

Candles,fires: Summer, warmth, paradise, end of darkness, Jewish Hanukkah

Tree: Eternal life, Paradise tree, pagan symbol

Apples: Apple of Paradise

Reindeer: A prop

Santa Claus: St Nicholas, pagan deity

Gifts: Customary (Romans, pagans everywhere), Magi

Mistletoe: Peace, kisses

Holly: Christ's crown of thorns

Gnomes: Pagan entirely

Straw: Stable & crib, pagan, handy material for deco

Sock: A prop (as chimney etc)

Christmas Crib

Jesus was born in a stable in Bethlehem. In Catholic countries this fact is brought to mind with miniature replicas of the nativity scene. The manger, animals, miniatures of Jesus, Joseph, Maria, the shepherds and the Three Magi are part of this very popular symbol. It was started (says the legend) by St Franciscus of Assisi. The Pope has his own in Rome but nowadays the custom is followed in Protestant countries, too.

Preview document

About Christmas - Pagina 1
About Christmas - Pagina 2
About Christmas - Pagina 3
About Christmas - Pagina 4

Conținut arhivă zip

  • About Christmas.doc

Alții au mai descărcat și

BMW - The Ultimate Driving Machine

BMW AG (an initials for Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft, or in English, Bavarian Motor Works), is an independent German company and...

Difference Between the Romanian and American Holidays

Romania is a country with a long and complicated history. It also has a variety of customs, traditions and holidays. Some of the holidays are...

Risk Management - A Science Or An Art

Strategies for identifying and measuring risk can help treasury personnel develop a sound diversification policy Before a risk profile can be...

The Evolution of Computer Science

The Evolution Of Computer Science The birth of computers and information technology goes back many centuries. The development of mathematics led...

11th of September 2001

The day of September 11th 2001 will remain as a dark day in history. All people know about this day and what happened at this date. On this day,...

Test de engleză 3

Part Three: Gapped Text You are going to read a magazine article about a trip to Australia. Seven paragraphs have been removed from the article...

Prezentare a Mediului de Afaceri Argentinian

INTRODUCTION Essential facts about Argentina Geert Hofstede analysis over Argentina and the Latin American countries BUSINESS ETIQUETTE...

Te-ar putea interesa și


INTRODUCTION When exploring the Gothic, it is difficult to isolate psychologicalfactors from social issues.In a form which focuses soclosely on...

Research Report - Xbox 360, Project Natal

1. Problem definition 1.1 Background As the competition on the market of computer games is getting fiercer, each launched product should have...

Great Expectations

Great Expectations is a Bildungsroman (a novel tracing the life of the protagonist) by Charles Dickens and first serialized in All the Year Round...

Intercultural Project - Russia

Introduction Have you ever thought about going to Russia, having a Russian friend or why not doing business with a Russian businessman- If the...

Customs în European Countries

AUSTRIA Marriage and Family Couples often decide to live together before or instead of marriage. Many people marry in church, but a civil...

American Holidays

The History of Valentines Day Every February, all across United States, candies, flowers, and gifts are exchanged between loved ones, all in the...

Economic Sociology

1. Introduction 1.1. Characteristics of the Social Sciences Economics is the scientific study of an aspect of human behaviour. Because its...

The Notebook

Arguments 3 Precis 4 Nicholas Sparks-Biography 5 The Notebook 5-10 Chapter summaries with analysis 11-12 List of characters Major character...

Ai nevoie de altceva?