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  1. Chapter 1 Essential quality factors 3
  2. 1.1 Measurement of quality and purity 3
  3. 1.2 Nutritional potential 6
  4. 1.3 Olive Oil- Health Benefits 9
  5. 1.4 Technological process 10
  6. 1.5 Problems regarding transportation, storage, labeling 12
  7. 1.5.1 Storage 12
  8. 1.5.2 Transportation 13
  9. 1.5.3 Bottling 13
  10. 1.5.4 Labeling 14
  11. Chapter 2 Market of olive oil 16
  12. 2.1 Local and international market 16
  13. 2.2 Imports of olive oil 18
  14. 2.3 Negotiators 18
  15. Market of Margarine 18
  16. Market of Butter 22
  17. Bibliography 24

Extras din referat

Vegetable fats

Vegetable fats and oils are lipid materials derived from plants. Physically, oils are liquid at room temperature, and fats are solid. Chemically, both fats and oils are composed of triglycerides, as contrasted with waxes which lack glycerin in their structure. Although many different parts of plants may yield oil, in commercial practice, oil is extracted primarily from seeds.

The melting temperature distinction between oils and fats is imprecise, since definitions of room temperature vary, and typically natural oils have a melting range instead of a single melting point.

Vegetable fats and oils may be edible or inedible. Examples of inedible vegetable fats and oils include processed linseed oil, tung oil, and castor oil used in lubricants, paints, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and other industrial purposes. Although thought of as esters of glycerin and a varying blend of fatty acids, fats and oils also typically contain free fatty acids, monoglycerides, and diglycerides. Examples of edible oils: margarine, butter, olive oil, flower seed oil and many others.


1.1 Measurement of quality and purity

In the making of margarine, certain raw materials must be used; the raw materials and additives must correspond to the sanitarium regulations. As raw materials can be used: oils and vegetable or animal fats for maximum 80% that might be subject or not to a modification process, as hydrogenate, fraction; it will also be added water for maximum 16%; milk or products from milk; sodium chloride; sugar; starch; vitamins as vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E and others.

For margarine to have the taste we know, there must also be added another additives. The colors that might be added are: Beta-carotene, Annatto extracts, Curmin or Turmeric; natural flavors can also be added because the margarine flavor will get lost in the fabrication process. It will also be added emulsifiers, preservatives, antioxidants, acidity regulators, anti-foaming agents.

Because we live in a world that seeks diversification, margarine is trying to maintain the course. Therefore modified margarine has appeared which the result of recently implemented nutrition labeling regulations is. These products can be called "margarine", but this identification must be preceded by one of the Food Administration's approved nutrient content claims.

To qualify, the product must meet certain criteria:

- Reduced-fat or reduced-calorie/diet margarine -- will contain no more than 60 percent oil (25% reduction in fat and calories)

- Light/lower fat margarine -- will contain no more than 40 percent oil (50% or more reduction in fat)

- Fat-free margarine -- virtually fat-free, will contain less than 1/2 gram of fat per serving

Olive oil is produced by the cold pressing of the olive (pulp, stone and skin) and separating the oil by mechanical means. The highest grade of olive oil is extra virgin, which is produced from a first cold pressing of the fruit.

While the International Olive Oil Council allows acidity of up to 3.3% for human consumption, consumers should look for acidity levels less than one percent and lower in an extra virgin olive oil. Acidity affects the taste and is a determinant of quality

Extra Virgin Olive Oil is a virgin olive oil with an absolutely impeccable taste and aroma; the acidity, expressed in oleic acid, may not exceed 0.8 grams per 100 grams.

Virgin Olive Oil is also virgin olive oil with an impeccable taste and aroma; the acidity expressed in oleic acid may not be more than 0.3 grams per 100 grams.

Ordinary virgin olive oil is a virgin olive oil with a free acidity, expressed as oleic acid, of not more than 3.3 grams per 100 grams and whose other characteristics correspond to those laid down for this category

The refined olive oil is obtained by refining virgin olive oil which has an acidity level and organoleptic defects which are eliminated after refining. Their oleic acidity may not exceed 0.3 grams per 100 grams.

Olive Oil is a mixture of refined olive oil and virgin olive oil suitable for human consumption. Its acidity may not exceed 1 gran per 100 grams.

Refined olive-pomace oil is oil obtained from crude olive-pomace oil by refining methods which donot lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure. It has a free acidity, expressed as oleic acid, of not more than 0.3 grams per 100 grams.

Olive-Pomace Oil is another oil derived from the olive that keeps its initial chemical structure. It is made of the oil extracted from olive pomace using solvents, which is then refined and blended with virgin olive oil. In no case may the degree of acidity exceed 1.5%.

Butter is a dairy product made by churning fresh or fermented cream of milk. It is used as a spread and a condiment, as well as in cooking applications such as baking, sauce making, and frying. Butter consists of butterfat, water and milk proteins.Most usually made from cows' milk, butter can also be manufactured from that of other mammals, including sheep, goats, buffalo, and yaks. Salt, flavorings and preservatives are sometimes added to butter. Rendering butter produces clarified butter , which is almost entirely butterfat. Butter remains a solid when refrigerated, but softens to a spreadable consistency at room temperature, and melts to a thin liquid consistency at 32–35 °C (90–95 °F).

Organoleptic characteristics are important for both the producer and consumer, because it can create the first impression regarding the product, it also give the impulse to buy and determines its appetency. From the producers point of view organoleptic characteristics represent an inexpensive methods of analyzing quality.

Green oil is most likely a product of green olives, harvested before ripening, and is highly prized by many. Golden-yellow olive oil is generally the product of olives that have been allowed to ripen longer. Both green and golden-yellow oils can be extra virgin oils. Olive oil can also be cloudy if it has not settled which not an indication that it’s poor quality.

Taste and smell are important quality indicators; they can draw the attention when a certain problem occurs, this method of analysis quality is desirable due to the relative small costs. Sensory assessment is based on the positive and negative descriptors of olive oil sensory components. Positive descriptors are fruity, green, citrus, spicy, fragrant, tropical, soft, over-ripe, bitter and pungent, and they are determined by the quality of fruit produced on the tree. Negative descriptors are caused by human error and include fusty, musty, muddy, winey, metallic, rancid, and burnt and others.

The density of butter is 911 kg/m3 (1535.5 lb/yd3)It generally has a pale yellow color, but varies from deep yellow to nearly white. Its color is dependent on the animal's feed and is commonly manipulated with food colorings in the commercial manufacturing process, most commonly annatto or carotene.

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