Engleză maritimă

8.5/10 (2 voturi)
Domeniu: Engleză
Conține 4 fișiere: pdf
Pagini : 31 în total
Cuvinte : 10274
Mărime: 889.22KB (arhivat)
Publicat de: Mircea Văduva
Puncte necesare: 0

Extras din curs

Unit 1

Naval Architecture. Future

1.1. Naval architecture

A ship is any large floating vessel capable of crossing open waters, as opposed to a boat, which is generally a smaller craft. The term formerly was applied to sailing vessels having three or more masts; in modern times it usually denotes a vessel of more than 500 tons of displacement. Submersible ships are generally called boats regardless of their size.

Naval architecture

The term shipbuilding usually refers to the actual construction of a ship. The design stage that precedes shipbuilding is performed by a naval architect, and the science of ship design is called naval architecture. The specialty dealing with power plants used in ships is known as marine engineering.

The design of ships employs many technologies and branches of engineering that also are found ashore, but the imperatives of effective and safe operation at sea require oversight from a unique discipline. That discipline is properly called marine engineering, but the term naval architecture is familiarly used in the same sense. In this section the latter term is used to denote the hydrostatic and aesthetic aspects of marine engineering. The measurements of ships are given in terms of length, breadth, and depth. The length between perpendiculars is the distance on the summer (maximum) load waterline, from the forward side of the stem at the extreme forward part of the vessel to the after side of the rudder post at the extreme rear, or to the centre of the rudder stock, if there is no rudder post. The beam is the greatest breadth of the ship. The depth is measured at the middle of the length, from the top of the keel to the top of the deck beam at the side of the uppermost continuous deck. Draft is measured from the keel to the waterline, while freeboard is measured from the waterline to the deck edge.

The basis of naval architecture is found in Archimedes' principle, which states that the weight of a statically floating body must equal the weight of the volume of water that it displaces. This law of buoyancy determines not only the draft at which a vessel will float but also the angles that it will assume when in equilibrium with the water. A ship may be designed to carry a specified weight of cargo, plus such necessary supplies as fuel, lubricating oil, crew, and the crew's life support. These combine to form a total known as deadweight. To deadweight must be added the weight of the ship's structure, propulsion machinery, hull engineering (non-propulsive machinery), and outfit (fixed items having to do with crew life support). These categories of weight are known collectively as lightship weight. The sum of deadweight and lightship weight is displacement, that is, the weight that must be equalled by the weight of displaced water if the ship is to float. Of course, the volume of water displaced by a ship is a function of the size of that ship, but in turn the weight of water that is to be matched by displacement is also a function of the ship's size. The early stages of ship design, therefore, are a struggle to predict the size of the ship that the sum of all weights will require. The naval architect's resources include experience-based formulas that provide approximate values for making such predictions. Subsequent refinements usually produce accurate predictions of the ship's draft, that is, the depth of water in which the finished ship will float. In some cases a ship may be

intended for cargo of such a high stowage factor (i.e., volume per weight unit) that providing for the required internal volume is more of a problem than providing for a specific deadweight. Nevertheless, the problem of designing for a displacement that matches the weight of the ship is essentially the same.

1.2. Ways of expressing future

There are several forms of expressing future out of which we are going to study some: Simple Future Tense, Future Continuous Tense, „Be Going To‟ Future and Future Perfect.

1.2.1. Simple Future Tense

Shall and will

Will is used with all persons, but shall can be used as an alternative with I and we in pure future reference. Shall is usually avoided with you and I (e.g. You and I will work in the same department.)


Shall weakens to [∫al] in speech, but does not contract to „ll in writing. Will contracts to „ll in writing and fluent, rapid speech after vowels (I‟ll, we‟ll, you‟ll, etc.) but „ll can also occur after consonants. So we might find „ll used:

- after names: Tom‟ll be here soon.

- after common nouns: The watch‟ll start in a minute.

- after question words: When‟ll they arrive?


Will not contracts to „ll not or won‟t, shall not contracts to shan‟t (e.g. I/We won‟t or shan‟t go.)

In AmE shan‟t is rare and shall with a future reference is unusual.

Preview document

Engleză maritimă - Pagina 1
Engleză maritimă - Pagina 2
Engleză maritimă - Pagina 3
Engleză maritimă - Pagina 4
Engleză maritimă - Pagina 5
Engleză maritimă - Pagina 6
Engleză maritimă - Pagina 7
Engleză maritimă - Pagina 8
Engleză maritimă - Pagina 9
Engleză maritimă - Pagina 10
Engleză maritimă - Pagina 11
Engleză maritimă - Pagina 12
Engleză maritimă - Pagina 13
Engleză maritimă - Pagina 14
Engleză maritimă - Pagina 15
Engleză maritimă - Pagina 16
Engleză maritimă - Pagina 17
Engleză maritimă - Pagina 18
Engleză maritimă - Pagina 19
Engleză maritimă - Pagina 20
Engleză maritimă - Pagina 21
Engleză maritimă - Pagina 22
Engleză maritimă - Pagina 23
Engleză maritimă - Pagina 24
Engleză maritimă - Pagina 25
Engleză maritimă - Pagina 26
Engleză maritimă - Pagina 27
Engleză maritimă - Pagina 28
Engleză maritimă - Pagina 29
Engleză maritimă - Pagina 30
Engleză maritimă - Pagina 31

Conținut arhivă zip

  • Engleza Maritima
    • curs1.pdf
    • curs2.pdf
    • curs3.pdf
    • curs4.pdf

Alții au mai descărcat și

Hotel Ami

1 Introduction 1.1 About the final project My final project is based on my internship in Hotel Ami. During my internship, I have access...

Predarea limbii engleze la clase cu nivele de cunoștințe diferite

INTRODUCTION The basis of this paper is the statement that according to which, the individuals of every group of students have a different level...

Ristorante Monello

We have chosen to do a case study of Ristorante Monello. We made this choice because of easy access to data collection. We would like to focus...

Hotel Management Style - Managers and Employee Perceptions and Preferences

Chapter one: Contextualization of the study 1. Introduction 1.1 Background to the study: The misunderstanding of the concept of managing or the...

Coca-Cola Company

Introduction To begin with, our project is sharing a remarkable story about the evolution of an iconic brand and the company that bears its name....

Western vs Eastern Mentality

Argument Every nation on Earth has its own characteristics, characteristics which are influenced by the regional mentality (Balkan mentality,...

Lesson Plan - Passive Voice

SCHOOL: ENGLISH TEACHER: DATE: 19th of January 2015 STUDENTS’ LEVEL: Upper-Intermediate, 11th grade TYPE OF LESSON: Teaching grammar TOPIC:...

Business Ethics

Task 1.1. Explain the background and development of theoretical ethical approaches in Pfizer. Antonio Ramirez (2008) consider ethics as "a science...

Te-ar putea interesa și

Formarea contractului de comerț internațional


Asigurarea Bunurilor în Timpul Transportului

1.1. Cererea şi oferta pe piaţa asigurărilor După cum se ştie, piaţa ocupă locul central în mecanismul de funcţionare al unei economii moderne...

Bătălia Angliei

BATALIA ANGLIEI Dupa infrangerea Frantei, Hitler era convins ca Anglia, care ramasese singura in raz-boi, va cadea la intelegere cu Germania. La...

Asigurarea Maritimă

Introducere Asigurarea este o activitate economico-socială care constă în protecţia persoanelor fizice şi juridice în calitate de asiguraţi...

Asigurarea maritimă

1. SCURT ISTORIC Asigurarea maritime este prima forma de asigurare, inceputul ei datand inca din antichitate. Cercetarile istorice au demonstrat...

Asigurarea Maritimă

“Dacă omul va începe cu certitudinile va sfârsi prin a se îndoi dar dacă se va mulţumi a începe cu îndoielile va sfârsi prin a avea...

Asigurările Maritime

ASIGURAREA MARITIMA I. Conceptul de avarie Asigurarea maritima, ca ramura a asigurarilor de bunuri, protejeaza navele maritime si fluviale,...

Reprezentanții de seamă ai mercantilismului englez și român

1. Introducere Cuvintul mercantilist este de origine italiana si are mai multe semnificatii: mercato- insemnind “piata”, mercante-“negustor”, iar...

Ai nevoie de altceva?